For example, a mineral described as “shiny yellow” is being described in terms of luster (“shiny”) and color (“yellow”), which are two different physical properties. The Mohs scale is low-tech but time-tested. These are based on the oxygen anion, O2–. First, you need to become familiar with the physical properties of minerals and how to recognize them. All rocks except obsidian and coal are made of minerals. When found as red corundum, it is called ruby. A crystal face forms during the growth of the mineral. Manual of Mineralogy (currently, in its 23rd edition, this is Dutrow, Barbara and Kelin, Cornelis, Manual of Mineral Science 2007). How to Use Mineral Streak to Identify Rock Samples, Get to Know the 7 Delicate Sulfate Minerals, What You Need to Know Before You Buy a Rock Collection, A Few Rocks That Include Silicate Materials, B.A., Earth Sciences, University of New Hampshire. To use a key to identify minerals, you will be given a series of choices about the properties of a mineral. All minerals are crystalline, but only some have the opportunity to exhibit the shapes of their crystals, their crystal forms. At a glance, calcite and quartz look similar. A magnifier is also handy, but not required. We will emphasize your ability to observe and test for these properties over your ability to merely name the mineral, although that is the overall goal. In the minerals tables that accompanies this section, the minerals are grouped according to their luster and color. Fracture is breakage, which occurs in directions that are not cleavage directions. Dolomite, found in marble, will fizz actively if dropped in a small bath of acid, for example. Most minerals are about three times as dense as water; that is, they have a specific gravity of about 3. The streak of hematite across an unglazed porcelain plate is red-brown. It is a great tool for any budding Geology student which can save a lot of time in identifying minerals and in … The specific gravity of a substance compares its density to that of water. However, some quartz crystals have so many flaws that instead of exhibiting conchoidal fracture they simply exhibit irregular fracture. Imagine you have an unknown mineral. These have the polyatomic phosphate ion, (PO4)3–, as the anion. Introductory Guide to Rocks and Minerals with information about rocks and minerals, how they are formed and their physical properties. It's the hardest material known. How to Identify Rocks and Minerals By Jan C. Rasmussen (Revised from a booklet by Susan Celestian) 2012 Donations for reproduction from: Freeport McMoRan Copper & Gold Foundation You can understand the properties of a silicate mineral such as crystal shape and cleavage by knowing which type of crystal lattice it has. Close observation and perhaps a magnifying glass are all you need for this step in the mineral identification process. Maybe it's graphite? For example cleaned polished pieces of chrome, steel, titanium, copper, and brass all exhibit metallic luster as do many other minerals. Mineral Identification Guide Complete with photos and information about each mineral’s distinguishing characteristics, this mineral identification guide has been designed to assist you in identifying the minerals provided in the Deeper and Deeper and Mining Matters II kits. This lab will also introduce you to the deductive process where you will utilize the results of each property test to identify the … All you need are a few simple tools (like a magnet and a magnifying glass) and your own powers of careful observation. Learn. Minerals that are harder will scratch the place and won't leave a streak. It is a relative, or nonlinear, scale. Observe and measure the properties of a mineral sample, and then use a key to identify the mineral. A mineral with visible layers, like Rhodochrosite, has a banded habit. Figure 2. Grain Size: Coarse grains are visible to the naked eye, and the minerals can usually be identified without using a magnifier. b. Another special property is magnetism. Mineral Identification Lab. Find a mineral that has properties that match Sample A. 1. There are more than 20 different terms describing habit. Some minerals, such as quartz, have no cleavage whatsoever. A mineral's habit (its general form) can be especially useful for identifying some minerals. There are two complicating factors to remember here: (1) minerals do not always form nice crystals when they grow, and (2) a crystal face is different from a cleavage surface. It came with over 150 pieces and 30 different types of ricks and minerals to identify. Most minerals leave a white streak, regardless of their overall color. Look at it closely on all visible sides to see how it reflects light, Evaluate any other physical properties necessary to determine the mineral’s identity. There are 26 mineral samples to identify. (Obsidian is a volcanic rock made of glass and coal is made of organic carbon.) Massis the amount of … Additionally, Some minerals come in many different colors. To see mineral cleavage, hold the mineral up beneath a strong light and move it around, move it around some more, to see how the different sides reflect light. Flashcards. The major classes of minerals are: Based on the polyatomic anion, (SiO4)4–, which has a tetrahedral shape. Metals usually fracture into jagged edges. Mineral Identification Although nearly 2,500 minerals are known to occur within Earth's crust, most are rare with only about 100 occurring in abundance. Study Flashcards On Geology-Mineral Identification Quiz at Cram.com. Figure 6. Geology 2 Lab 1 Mineral Identification KEY The Purposeof this lab is to practice identifying minerals by systematically observing their physical properties. Scratched Talc by fingernail Scratched by penny Yellow Brown Earthy Fracture Earthy luster, yellow to almost black. This page was last edited on 31 May 2020, at 11:22 (UTC). In tables 1–3, hardness is measured on Mohs Hardness Scale. Finally, make sure your sample is free of dirt and debris, clean and dry. It’s an awesome way to really learn to identify … GS104 Lab 4 Answer Key - Mineral Identification Pre-Lab Reading Questions Color - wavelengths and appearance of reflected visible light Streak - color of a mineral in powdered form Luster - appearance of mineral in reflected light (metallic or nonmetallic) Density (Heft) - … Ruby is the birthstone for July and Sapphire is … Student Exploration: Mineral Identification (ANSWER KEY) Download Student Exploration: Mineral Identification Vocabulary: crystal, density, hardness, homogeneous, luster, mass, mineral… A broken kitchen tile or even a handy sidewalk can do. These are based on the carbonate ion, (CO3)2–. Some minerals can sicken you if ingested in sufficient quantities. PO Box 342, Huger, South Carolina 29450 843-216-8189 843-216-8352 rockinfo@minimegeology.com www.minimegeology.com. Minerals can cleave into polygons. Take an unknown mineral and scratch it with an object of known hardness (like a fingernail or a mineral like quartz.) They are also classified on the basis of their hardness and their cleavage or fracture. … But a few minerals leave a distinctive streak that can be used to identify them. Mineral Identification Lab Introduction:In this lab activity you will become familiar with minerals and identifying their different properties. A mineral may exhibit 100 cleavage surfaces parallel to each other. STUDY. Examples include pyrite, FeS2, galena, PbS, and sphalerite, ZnS in its pure zinc form. Diamonds are popular gemstones because the way they reflect light makes them very sparkly. Magnification may be required to see striations on plagioclase cleavage surfaces. Mineralogists have special terms to describe luster. Magnetite, for example, has a strong pull that will attract even weak magnets. Minerals all have the same chemical structure. Always test for magnetism with a dark mineral—it's not hard. After you have completed all tests, name the minerals in Part 2 of this worksheet. Measuring it is the first step in mineral identification. But after a while you notice regularities, become familiar with the usual suspects, make some productive mistakes, and get better at it until it becomes easy and fun. Mixture of rust-like iron oxides. For example, the sulfides are based on the sufur ion, S2–. Of those 100 minerals, fifteen make up the common rock-forming minerals and only some of the remaining minerals have any economic value. An example of such a special property is the effervescent reaction of calcite to a weak solution of hydrochloric acid (5% HCl). One simple way to classify luster is based on whether the mineral is metallic or non-metallic. This rough diamond shows its octahedral cleavage. (b) Quartz is not sparkly and has a vitreous, or glassy, luster. Other Properties Mineral White 1-Cleavage Earthy or pearly luster. ; Hardness: This is measured with the Mohs scale and refers to the minerals contained within a rock. Mineral Identification Worksheet. Always check for luster on a fresh surface; you may need to chip off a small portion to expose a clean sample. A metallic luster means shiny like polished metal. Is this a diamond I see before me? zoe_branch1. The final step in mineral identification is to take your list of characteristics and consult … Use the largest mineral sample you can find. Identify: Now it is time to identify the mineral. Therefore, elements purified and crystallized in a laboratory do not qualify as minerals, unless they have also been found in nature. Minerals may have characteristic fractures (Figure 9). In between are a half-dozen other categories of luster that assess the degree of a mineral's transparency and reflectivity. In this activity, you will use an identification key for the minerals that you described above. If you can identify several of these physical properties, you can identify the mineral. A widespread mineral, but fine crystals can be found in localities in the Czech Republic, Germany, Mexico, the United States, Canada, and Chile. Purple quartz, known as amethyst, and clear quartz are the same mineral despite the different colors. Calcite is soft, and will not scratch glass. This section will introduce you to minerals. Luster describes the way a mineral reflects light. 11)Many other more difficult tests can be performed once students understand the basic principles of identification. Calcite, CaCO3, and dolomite, CaMg(CO3)2, are carbonate minerals. Type the name under Mineral name in the Gizmo and press Submit. Many minerals, such as the quartz in the Figure 3, do not have streak. Discover surprising insights and little-known facts about politics, literature, science, and the marvels of the natural world. (John Wiley & Sons Inc.). Quartz is much harder, hard enough to scratch glass. Examples include iron oxides such as hematite, Fe2O3 and magnetite, Fe3O4, and pyrolusite, MgO. The chemical formula is X 3 Y 2 Si 3 O 12. To understand rocks you need to become familiar with minerals and how they are identified. We will emphasize your ability to observe and test for these properties over your ability to merely name the mineral, although that is the overall goal. The most common mineral that is strongly magnetic is the mineral magnetite. [Note: The purpose of these questions is to activate prior knowledge and get students thinking. When identifying a rock you must first identify the individual minerals that make up that rock. Alan's advice has made this web version of the Rock Key a much better document. Student Exploration: Mineral ID Answer Key Vocabulary: crystal, density, hardness, luster, mass, mineral, It may take several guesses to get it right. Match. If a mineral splinters like wood, it may be fibrous. Hardness is the strength with which a mineral resists its surface being scraped or punctured. To check streak, scrape the mineral across an unglazed porcelain plate (Figure 5). Calcite has three cleavage directions which meet at angles other than 90°, so it breaks into solid pieces with perfectly flat, smooth, shiny sides. EPICENTER LAB #1 Use the mineral identification key (see Figure 1. Substances that are more dense have higher specific gravity. You will learn the various techniques used by geologists to identify and classify minerals. Sulfides like Galena, which is seven times more dense than water, will have a notable heft. The Mica Group is the name given to a group of silicate minerals that have silicon and oxygen as their two major components. Four kinds of graphs are shown in this Gizmo.Circle the kinds you have seen before. _____ FIGURE 1. Use this quiz to check your understanding and decide whether to (1) study the previous section further or (2) move on to the next section. Learning mineral identification is like learning to cook. To identify a mineral, you look at it closely. Terms in this set (16) Calcite (1) Comes in many white colors White streak Hardness = 3 3 directions of cleavage not at 90 degrees Nonmetallic-glassy luster Reacts to HCl. Minerals with a Nonmetallic Luster – Generally Dark-Colored . Composition Andrew Alden is a geologist based in Oakland, California. Cleavage Streak Properties Comments and Uses Name and Composition Harder than Glass No Greenish ... distinctive physical properties of each mineral species are in italics. It is often useful to first determine if a mineral has a metallic luster. Together, the chemical formula (the types and proportions of the chemical elements) and the crystal lattice (the geometry of how the atoms are arranged and bonded together) determine the physical properties of minerals. PO Box 342, Huger, South Carolina 29450 843-216-8189 843-216-8352 rockinfo@minimegeology.com www.minimegeology.com. Mica has cleavage in one direction and forms sheets (Figure 7). You will learn the various techniques used by geologists to identify and classify minerals. Figure 3. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want! Try to be precise in your identification. Mineralogists are scientists who study minerals. Includes: 75 mineral specimens. A simple lesson on how to identify minerals is seen in this video. To understand rocks you need to become familiar with minerals and how they are identified. Then determine the texture of the rock and based on the two, identify t he rock name. All minerals have fracture. The premise behind this Key is similar to that of the identification keys found in some fern and wildflower books: Key diagnostic properties are used to direct users to tables where further information on "likely suspects" is found. Calcite is easy to identify even without testing the reaction to HCl, by its hardness, luster and cleavage. You'll want to use a strong magnet. The number of cleavages is the number or directions in which the mineral cleaves. Fluorapatite, Ca5(PO4)3F, which makes your teeth hard, is a phosphate mineral. Flashcards. Earthy to metallic luster. A special property that shows up in some sample of plagioclase feldspar is its tendency to exhibit striations on cleavage surfaces. Figure 1. These are made of nothing but a single element. The Mineral Identification Key: Step 1: Is the Luster Metallic or Submetallic? For that reason, minerals break apart in characteristic ways. Minerals are classified according to their chemical properties. D 9. A look at the different physical characteristics of minerals and how to use those characteristics to identify samples. A mineral's magnetism can be another identifying characteristic in some instances. Spell. We thank Lloyd Brown, David Jacobson, and Alfred Ostrander. This mineral is shiny, very soft, heavy, and gold in color, and is actually gold. 2019 Mineral Identification Answer Key Vocabulary: crystal, density, hardness, luster, mass, mineral, streak, volume Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Gizmo.) Remember to distinguish luster from color. Identification Mineral identification is a process of elimination based on determinations of physical properties. It is the hardest mineral on Earth, second to diamond. Mostly mineral "goethite." I have successfully used the Rock Identification Key, in a flowchart paper format, with more than 6000 elementary school children for more than 20 years. As you read through the tables, you can click on the images of minerals to see a larger version of the photo. There are some properties that only help to distinguish a small number of minerals, or even just a single mineral. My 20th edition has Appendix I – Determinative Tables – which were very helpful before the days of online mineral identification keys. (a) Diamond has an adamantine luster. Minerals that are the same color may have a different colored streak. Geology 2 Lab 1 Mineral Identification KEY The Purpose of this lab is to practice identifying minerals by systematically observing their physical properties. Found in silver rich deposits as lead grey to black tarnished, soft, metallic pseudocubic crystals or elongatic prismatic crystals with rounded corners commonly associated with Silver. He works as a research guide for the U.S. Geological Survey. Borax, for instance, tastes sweet and slightly alkaline. MINERAL IDENTIFICATION KEY by Alan Plante & Donald Peck We wish to make this key available to one and all in the hope of correct identification of minerals in collections, rock gardens, and on windowsills everywhere. Other minerals have many colors: (1) Quartz- clear, pink, purple, white, brown (2) Hematite- black, grey, reddish brown, dark red A cleavage direction will show up as a smooth, shiny, evenly bright sheen of light reflected by one set of parallel surfaces on the mineral. How to Identify Rocks and Minerals By Jan C. Rasmussen (Revised from a booklet by Susan Celestian) 2012 Donations for reproduction from: Freeport McMoRan Copper & Gold Foundation In translucent or transparent minerals, however, color is less reliable as an identifier because it is usually the result of a chemical impurity. Mineral Identification Observe and measure the properties of a mineral sample, and then use a key to identify the mineral. Write. Cleavage is a profound property that results from a mineral's molecular structure, and cleavage is present even when the mineral doesn't form good crystals. Luster. To compare the hardness of two minerals see which mineral scratches the surface of the other. This Mineral Key is designed and intended for use on-line. Students can observe the color, luster, shape, density, hardness, streak, and reaction to acid for each mineral. This lab will also introduce you to the deductive process where you will utilize the results of each property test to identify the name of the mineral from an established key. Student Exploration Mineral Identification Gizmo Answer Key. Stalactitic, botryoidal forms common. Figure 3 shows one sample of quartz that is colorless and another quartz that is purple. Make note of a mineral that is noticeably light or heavy for its size. Scratch your mineral across the streak plate with a scribbling motion, then look at the results. Quartz (2) Many light colors Streak describes the color of a finely crushed mineral. Complete, up-to-date, mineral database containing 4,714 mineral species descriptions and comprehensive picture library of images. Pure quartz is clear or white, but quartz can have many other colors. Fracture is not always the same in the same mineral because fracture is not determined by the structure of the mineral. Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in an object. There is an identification chart to help kids learn them and sort them. Students can observe the color, luster, shape, density, hardness, streak, and reaction to acid for each mineral. With a Mohs scale, anyone can test an unknown mineral for its hardness. In this activity, you will use an identification key for the minerals that you described above. Some minerals have only one color: (1) Malachite- green (2) Sulfur- yellow B. a. If a mineral has space while it grows, it may form natural crystals, with a crystal shape reflecting the geometry of the mineral’s internal crystal lattice. This mineral collection kit also includes an identification key, a description of each mineral specimen, various hands-on activity suggestions, a nail to test hardness, a streak plate to test color, and a magnifier to examine the luster and other textures within each mineral. Mineral ID Kits for each station as listed below: 1 - Color vs. Streak - 8 mineral samples with different colors/streaks, streak plates, paper towels, magnifying glasses 2. Mostly mineral "goethite." Is it a pale or deep shade? A tiny amount of iron makes the quartz purple. Identifying Minerals Identifying minerals- minerals can be identified by their physical and chemical properties. To identify (name) igneous rocks, you determine two things about the rock: composition and texture. 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